HPV-driven Cancers and Somatic Mutations in These Cancers

by | Apr 18, 2019 | Blog

HPV Can Lead to Different Types of Cancer at Different Sites

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is mostly transmitted through sexual activities. Most of the infection (90%) is transient and the virus becomes undetectable within two years. The virus stays in the host cells in the rest of the infection, pertinent infection. Although not all pertinent infection will cause cancer, HPV-infection could lead to the following cancers:

  • Cervical cancer
  •  Oropharyngeal cancer
  • Head and neck cancer
  •  Anal cancer
  • Penile cancer
  • Vaginal cancer
  • Vulvar cancer

Not All HPV Viruses Cause Cancer

There are more than 150 subtypes of HPV by genotyping and only a small number of the subtypes are high-risk HPV that cause cancer. Among these high-risk HPV subtypes, HPV 16 is the one that causes most of cancer (50 to 90%). Therefore, it is important to understand if one carries high-risk HPV.

Mechanisms for HPV to Cause Cancer

HPV causes cancer by its interaction with the host cells. Two HPV oncoproteins play critical roles in causing cancer: E6 and E7 proteins. They bind to two tumor suppressor proteins, P53 and Rb, respectively and interfere with multiple normal cellular functions including tumor suppression and cell cycle regulations. In addition, the E6 and E7 proteins promote chromosomal instabilities and multiple cancer driver gene mutations including the most common mutations in PIK3CA (codon 542 and 545) and mutations in EGFRKRAS and many others. The details for the mechanism can be found in this review.

Understanding and detecting the genetic mutations in the HPV-driven cancer cells are important for targeted therapies and disease monitoring. Finding the potential biomarkers among these mutations and designing a diagnostic gene panel will help early cancer detection and improvement of cancer prognosis.

HPV Testing and Understanding of Cancer Risks

It is important to test high-risk HPV infection and understand the cancer risks. Our cost-effective QuantiVirus™ HPV E6/E7 mRNA test (RUO and CE/IVD) identifies pertinent infections by detecting the E6 and E7 gene expression of 14 high-risk HPV subtypes (link to a 2017 publication) and further determines if the subtype is HPV 16 or 18. The test uses either saliva or FFPE samples without isolating mRNA. The test has been successfully used for HPV genotyping for both cervical cancer and head and neck cancer patient samples.

Lead Source

KRAS Codon 12 Mutations and Detection

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool that has seen a fast increase in clinical labs although only a few NGS tests have been approved by the FDA. However, there have been a lot of debate on if variants from NGS sequencing should be confirmed either by Sanger sequencing, the gold standard, or other techniques such as quantitative PCR, or the combination, or other methods.

cfDNA Quantitation for Research and Clinical Applications

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool that has seen a fast increase in clinical labs although only a few NGS tests have been approved by the FDA. However, there have been a lot of debate on if variants from NGS sequencing should be confirmed either by Sanger sequencing, the gold standard, or other techniques such as quantitative PCR, or the combination, or other methods.

Confirmation of NGS for False-negative Variants Using XNA Technology

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool that has seen a fast increase in clinical labs although only a few NGS tests have been approved by the FDA. However, there have been a lot of debate on if variants from NGS sequencing should be confirmed either by Sanger sequencing, the gold standard, or other techniques such as quantitative PCR, or the combination, or other methods.

XNA Molecular Clamps Help Identify False-positive T790M Mutation

Eighty five percent of the lung cancer patients are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Among this population, patients with exon 19 deletion and L858R mutations respond well to the first (such as erlotinib and gefitinib) and second generation (such as afatinib and dacomitinib) of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, all the respondents develop resistance after 9 to 14-month period and more than 50% of the resistance cases are due to the single point mutation at exon 20, T790M.

Colorectal Cancer: Early Screening Could Save Your Life

linkedinfacebooktwitterColorectal cancer (CRC), including colon and rectum cancer, is the third most common cancer in the world and the third in the US as well. American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates that there are 97,220 and 43,030 new cases in 2018 for colon and...

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